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佳文選讀

民國110年11月佳文選讀

文宣心戰處上稿日期:110/11/01

第一週研讀 Ich bin ein Berliner

第二週研讀 Non-Violence: The Doctrine of the Sword

第三週研讀 Old Soldiers Never Die

第四週研讀 On Charity and Humor

國防部「奮鬥月刊」110年11月號佳文選讀選篇內容意旨分析表

 


(第一週研讀)

Ich bin ein Berliner
柏林圍牆的建立,是第二次世界大戰後美蘇兩大陣營冷戰的重要象徵。1963年,甘迺迪總統訪問歐洲,6月26日這一天是他此行的高潮,他在柏林圍牆前發表了這場著名的演講。
1989年11月9日,屹立了28年柏林圍牆終於倒塌。
在英國《每日電訊報》2008年評選出20–21世紀最重要的25場政治演說中,這一篇被排名在第二位。

 

I am proud to come to this city as the guest of your distinguished Mayor, who has symbolized throughout the world the fighting spirit of West Berlin. And I am proud to visit the Federal Republic with your distinguished Chancellor who for so many years has committed Germany to democracy and freedom and progress, and to come here in the company of my fellow American, General Clay, who has been in this city during its great moments of crisis and will come again if ever needed.
Two thousand years ago the proudest boast was "civis Romanus sum." Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is "Ich bin ein Berliner." I appreciate my interpreter translating my German!
There are many people in the world who really don't understand, or say they don't, what is the great issue between the free world and the Communist world. Let them come to Berlin. There are some who say that communism is the wave of the future. Let them come to Berlin. And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the Communists. Let them come to Berlin. And there are even a few who say that it is true that communism is an evil system, but it permits us to make economic progress. Lass' sie nach Berlin kommen. Let them come to Berlin.
Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us. I want to say, on behalf of my countrymen, who live many miles away on the other side of the Atlantic, who are far distant from you, that they take the greatest pride that they have been able to share with you, even from a distance, the story of the last 18 years. I know of no town, no city, that has been besieged for 18 years that still lives with the vitality and the force, and the hope and the determination of the city of West Berlin.

我很榮幸能接受你們傑出市長的邀請來貴市作客,市長在世界上象徵了西柏林的奮戰精神。我也很榮幸你們優秀的總理帶我參訪了西德,總理多年來致力於德國的民主、自由和進步;還有,陪同我一起來的美國同胞克雷將軍,他在這個城市危機的重大時刻來到了這裡,只要一有需要,他就會再回來。
兩千年前,最神氣的一句話是:「我是羅馬公民。」今天,在自由世界裡,最神氣的一句話則是:「Ich bin ein Berliner!」(德語:我是柏林人!)我很感謝我的翻譯人員教我如何講這一句德語。
在這個世界上,還有很多人不瞭解,或者說他們不明白自由世界與共產國家之間的根本分歧。那麼,就讓那些人來一趟柏林吧!對於那些主張共產主義是未來潮流的人,就讓他們來柏林瞧一瞧吧!對於那些在歐洲或其他各地主張和共產國家合作的人,也讓他們來一趟柏林吧!還有一些少數的人說,共產主義是邪惡的制度,但和他們合作還是有利於經濟發展,那麼,「Lass' sie nach Berlin kommen!」(德語:讓他們來柏林吧!)都讓這些人來柏林看一看吧!
自由,會讓我們面臨許多困難;民主,也不是最完美的,但我們再怎麼樣也不會高築城牆將人民圍起來,不准他們離開。我想說的是,我代表我的同胞,他們居住在大西洋千里之外的另一邊,與你們遙遙相望,但即使和你們隔著距離,但對於能與你們一起走過這十八年,他們身感無比的驕傲。我沒見過任何一個城市,能夠在被圍困了十八年之後,還能像西柏林一樣保留這樣的生機、力量、希望和決心。

While the wall is the most obvious and vivid demonstration of the failures of the Communist system, for all the world to see, we take no satisfaction in it, for it is, as your Mayor has said, an offense not only against history but an offense against humanity, separating families, dividing husbands and wives and brothers and sisters, and dividing a people who wish to be joined together.
What is true of this city is true of Germany—real, lasting peace in Europe can never be assured as long as one German out of four is denied the elementary right of free men, and that is to make a free choice.
In 18 years of peace and good faith, this generation of Germans has earned the right to be free, including the right to unite their families and their nation in lasting peace, with good will to all people. You live in a defended island of freedom, but your life is part of the main.
So let me ask you as I close, to lift your eyes beyond the dangers of today, to the hopes of tomorrow, beyond the freedom merely of this city of Berlin, or your country of Germany, to the advance of freedom everywhere, beyond the wall to the day of peace with justice, beyond yourselves and ourselves to all mankind.
Freedom is indivisible, and when one man is enslaved, all are not free. When all are free, then we can look forward to that day when this city will be joined as one and this country and this great Continent of Europe in a peaceful and hopeful globe. When that day finally comes, as it will, the people of West Berlin can take sober satisfaction in the fact that they were in the front lines for almost two decades.
All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner."

這一道牆,就是共產制度挫敗最活生生的例子,這是全世界的人都有目共睹的,但我們並不因此而感到稱心如意,因為,就如你們市長所說的,這不只是在歷史上倒行逆施,而且更是違反了人性,它拆散家庭,讓夫妻、兄弟姐妹骨肉分離,硬生生地將希冀相連在一起的民族分成兩半。
這個城市的情況,就是整個德國的縮影—只要四個德國人當中有一個被剝奪了自由人類的基本權利,也就是說,他連自主權都沒有的話,那麼,歐洲就不可能擁有真正且永久的和平。
經過了這十八年的和平和善意,在與世界和平共處之後,這一代的德國人終於贏得了自由的權利,包括和家人團圓、國家和平統一的權利,你們住在一個受到保護的自由之島上,但你們的生活是整片海洋的一部分。
所以,在演講的最後,我想請求你們將眼光放得更遠,不要只是看到今日的危機,更要看到明天的希望;不要只是看到柏林市的自由,或是德國的自由,更要看到每一個地方自由的發展。我們要把眼光越過圍牆,超越自己,看到全人類和平正義的日子來臨的那一天。
自由是不能分割的,只要有一個人受到奴役,其他所有人就不能說是自由的。等到人人都自由了,那我們就可以期待這一天的到來—在和平、充滿希望的地球上,這個城市統一了,德國統一了,歐洲大陸統一了。當這一天終於到來時,總有那麼一天的,西柏林的市民將會萬分欣慰,因為將近二十年來,他們一直就是站在這個前線上的。
所有自由的人類,無論他是居住在什麼地方,他也都是一個柏林公民。身為自由的人們,我可以驕傲地說:「Ich bin ein Berliner!」(德語:我是柏林人!)

 

本文節錄自:《聚焦英語演說:56篇偉大演講(新增二版)》,寂天文化事業有限公司出版,民國107年2月,頁62–67。

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(第二週研讀)

Non-Violence: The Doctrine of the Sword
甘地一生為印度的獨立而奮鬥,帶領國家脫離英國的殖民統治。聖雄(Mahatma),是印度詩人泰戈爾(Rabindranath Tagore, 1861–1941)給予他的稱號,意思是「偉大的靈魂」。
甘地於1888年留學英國倫敦大學,修習法律。1893年,甘地被一家印度公司派至南非,後來參與了南非的公民權利運動,並曾於1913年被捕。在南非的這段期間,甘地成了社會政治活動家,其不服從的非暴力抵抗也逐漸成形。

 

In this age of the rule of brute force, it is almost impossible for anyone to believe that anyone else could possibly reject the law of final supremacy of brute force. And so I receive anonymous letters advising me that I must not interfere with the progress of non-cooperation even though popular violence may break out.
Others come to me and assuming that secretly I must be plotting violence, inquire when the happy moment for declaring open violence to arrive. They assure me that English never yield to anything but violence secret or open. Yet others I am informed, believe that I am the most rascally person living in India because I never give out my real intention and that they have not a shadow of a doubt that I believe in violence just as much as most people do.
Such being the hold that the doctrine of the sword has on the majority of mankind, and as success of non-cooperation depends principally on absence of violence during its pendency and as my views in this matter affect the conduct of large number of people. I am anxious to state them as clearly as possible.
I do believe that, where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence. Thus when my eldest son asked me what he should have done had he been present when I was almost fatally assaulted in 1908, whether he should have used his physical force which he could and wanted to use, and defended me, I told him that it was his duty to defend me even by using violence.
Hence it was that I took part in the Boer War, the so-called Zulu Rebellion and the late war. Hence also do I advocate training in arms for those who believe in the method of violence. I would rather have India resort to arms in order to defend her honor than that she should, in a cowardly manner, become or remain a helpless witness to her own dishonor.

在這個武力當道的時代,幾乎沒有人會相信有人可以放棄訴諸武力這種終極手段。也因此,我收到不具名的信,勸我不要去干預不合作運動的進行,就算有可能爆發大規模的武力衝突。
還有一些人來找我,以為我一定暗中在策畫暴力活動,他們問我,何時要宣告展開令人亢奮的武力抗爭活動?他們跟我打包票說,英國人只會妥協於武力,不管是祕密還是公然進行的武力活動。我甚至聽說,還有人認為我是當今印度最無賴的分子,因為我從不說真心話,他們毫不懷疑地認定我崇尚武力,就像大部分的人一樣。
一般人都是這樣認為武力法則主宰了多數人類,而不合作運動的成功與否,主要就在於運動期間不能有暴力衝突,我對這一點的看法,影響了不少人的行為。我很想就這一點盡可能地加以闡釋清楚。
我也認為,迫不得已要在怯懦和暴力之間做出選擇的話,我會建議選擇暴力。1908年,我遭到襲擊,幾乎喪生,我的大兒子問我,要是他在現場的話,他應該怎麼做?他很想動手回擊以保護我,他可以這樣做嗎?我告訴他,就算是動手動腳來保護我,也是他的一種責任。
自從那個事件之後,我參加了波爾戰爭,也就是祖魯人叛亂事件以及後續的戰爭。從那時候起,我也和那些崇尚武力手段的人士站在同一陣線,擁護軍事訓練。倘若因為懦弱而眼睜睜看著印度遭受屈辱,那我寧可訴諸武力,以守護印度。

But I believe that non-violence is infinitely superior to violence, forgiveness is more manly than punishment, forgiveness adorns a soldier. But abstinence is forgiveness only when there is the power to punish; it is meaningless when it pretends to proceed from a helpless treasure. A mouse hardly forgives a cat when it allows itself to be torn to pieces by her.
I therefore appreciate the sentiment of those who cry out for the punishment of General Dyer and his ilk. They would tear him to pieces if thy could. But I do not believe Indian to be helpless. I do not believe myself to be a helpless creature. Only I want to use India's and my strength for a better purpose.
Let me no be misunderstood. Strength does no come from physical capacity. It comes from an indomitable will. An average Zulu is any way more than a match for an average Englishman in bodily capacity. But he flees from an English boy, because he fears death and is nerveless in spite of his burly figure.
We in India may in a moment realize that one hundred thousand Englishmen need not frighten three hundred million human beings. A definite forgiveness would therefore, mean a definite recognition of our strength.

但是,我相信非暴力遠遠地勝過於武力。寬恕,要比動粗還更有男子氣概,更能顯示出戰士的威風。然而,在可以為之而不為的情況下,這樣的武力克制才算得上是一種寬恕。如果是因為勢不可為,而拿來當作逃遁的藉口,那就不是這麼一回事了。屈服於貓爪下的老鼠,是不能說牠寬恕了貓的。
因此,對於那些主張懲罰戴爾將軍和其爪牙的人,我很能體會他們的心情,他們恨不得將他碎屍萬段。然而,我並不認為印度人是無能為力的,我也不認為自己是一個無能為力的人。我想做的,只是想讓印度同胞和我自己的能力,能夠發揮於一個更好的目標上。
大家不要誤會了我的意思。力量,不是來自於身體的蠻力,而是來自於不屈不撓的意志。在身體的氣力上,一個中等體型的祖魯人,是足以和另一個中等體型的英國人互相對抗的,然而,當他看到一個英國小男孩時,儘管他塊頭要大得多,他卻會拔腿就跑,因為他怕自己小命不保。
在印度,我們可能意識過,即使只有十萬個英國人,但就算來個三億的人馬,也毋須害怕。因此,要有一個真正的寬恕,就必須對我們自己的力量有一個明確的認識。

With enlightened forgiveness must come a mighty wave of strength in us which would make it impossible for a Dyer and a Frank Johnson to heap affront on India's devoted head. We feel too downtrodden not to be angry and revengeful. But I must not refrain from saying that India can gain more by waiving the right of punishment. We have better work to do, a better mission to deliver to the world.
I am not a visionary. I claim to be a practical idealist. The religion of non-violence is not meant merely for the rishis holy people and saints. It is meant for the common people as well. Non-violence is the law of our species as violence is the law of the brute, and he knows no law but that of physical might. The dignity of man requires obedience to a higher law—to the strength of the spirit.
I have therefore ventured to place before Indian the ancient law of selfsacrifice. For satyagraha and its off shoots, non-cooperation and civil resistance are nothing but new names for the law of suffering. The rishis who discovered the law of non-violence in the midst of violence, were greater geniuses than Newton. They were themselves greater warriors than Wellington. Having themselves known the use of arms, they realized their uselessness, and taught a weary world that its salvation lay not through violence but through non-violence.
Non-violence in its dynamic condition means conscious suffering. It does not mean meek submission to the will of the evil-doer, but it means the pitting of one's whole soul against the will of the tyrant. Working under this law of our being, it is possible for a single individual to defy the whole might of an unjust empire to save his honor, his religion, his soul, and lay the foundation for that empire's fall or its regeneration.

覺悟性的寬恕,必然來自於內心裡強大的力量,這種力量會使得那一幫英國人根本不敢爬到印度人的頭上撒野。我們感到被蹂躪得很徹底,所以不敢言怒,也不敢回擊。我不得不這麼說,印度只要揮旗起義,就能有所改善,但是,我們還有更好的事業可以奮鬥,可以為全世界執行更好的任務。
我不是一個空想家,我主張要做一個實際的理想家。真理堅固的信仰,不是神仙聖人才需要修持的,對一般凡夫俗子而言也是有必要的。非暴力是我們人類的法則,暴力是野蠻世界的法則,它只有蠻力而無法律可言。人類尊嚴需要依循於一個更高的法則—依循於內在的力量。
因此,我才向印度人提出了「犧牲奉獻」這條古老的法則。Satyagraha(真理堅固)和其衍生出的概念—不合作運動與非暴力抵抗—都只是苦行法則的新名稱罷了。在暴力之中發現非暴力法則的神仙聖人,他們的發明比牛頓更具天才,他們也比威靈頓公爵更驍勇善戰。他們領悟到武力不能解決問題,所以教導疲乏的世人,解決之道不在於武力,而在於非暴力。
非暴力的進行,是一種醒覺性的苦行。它決非是指卑微地臣服於淫威之下,而是指威武不能屈。只要能依循這條生存的法則,單槍匹馬的一個人就可能成為足以與整個邪惡帝國抗衡的力量,能夠挽救其榮譽、宗教和精神,並成為帝國失敗或改革的基礎。

 

本文節錄自:《聚焦英語演說:56篇偉大演講(新增二版)》,寂天文化事業有限公司出版,民國107年2月,頁76–83。

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(第三週研讀)

Old Soldiers Never Die
1950年6月25日,北韓領導人金日成進攻南韓,6月27日杜魯門總統下令美軍參戰,聯合國安理會隨後也組織軍隊參戰,由麥克阿瑟擔任總司令。後來杜魯門總統指示他只能打一場有限的戰爭,麥克阿瑟公開反對。1951年4月11日,杜魯門以「未能全力支持美國和聯合國的政策」為由,將之撤職。麥克阿瑟回到美國後,在華盛頓受到了萬人空巷的英雄式歡迎。1951年4月19日,麥克阿瑟在國會大廈發表了這篇著名的《老兵不死》的告別演說。其中最膾炙人口的一句話就是: Old soldiers never die; they just fade away 老兵不死,只是凋零.。

 

I stand on this rostrum with a sense of deep humility and great pride—humility in the wake of those great architects of our history who have stood here before me, pride in the reflection that this home of legislative debate represents human liberty in the purest form yet devised.
Here are centered the hopes and aspirations and faith of the entire human race. I do not stand here as advocate for any partisan cause, for the issues are fundamental and reach quite beyond the realm of partisan considerations. They must be resolved on the highest plane of national interest if our course is to prove sound and our future protected.
I trust, therefore, that you will do me the justice of receiving that which I have to say as solely expressing the considered viewpoint of a fellow American. I address you with neither rancor nor bitterness in the fading twilight of life, with but one purpose in mind: to serve my country.

站在這個演講臺上,我懷著十分謙卑,卻也十分驕傲的心情。我謙卑,是因為在我之前,有許多我們歷史上的偉大創造者也曾經在這裡發言過;我驕傲,是因為我想到,這個最早容許立法辯論的地方,正代表著人類有史以來最純粹的一種自由。
這個地方,是全人類之希望、抱負和信仰的中心。我站在這裡,不是為了任何黨派而發言,我要談的是最根本的問題,是超越黨派的。如果要證明我們的路線是正確的,要保障我們的未來,那麼在制定有關國家利益的最高綱領時,就必須解決這些問題。
因此,我相信,當我只是陳述出一個身為美國公民的熱切觀點後,你們就能接受我所說的話了。我已經進入日薄西山的晚年,在這裡對你們談話的我,心中沒有仇恨、沒有痛苦,只有一個目標:為我的國家服務。

I am closing my fifty-two years of military service. When I joined the army, even before the turn of the century, it was the fulfillment of all my boyish hopes and dreams.
The world has turned over many times since I took the oath on the plain at West Point, and the hopes and dreams have long since vanished, but I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular barracks ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that old soldiers never die; they just fade away.
And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty.
Good-bye.

我即將結束我五十二年的軍旅生涯。我在上個世紀末就加入軍隊,這讓我實現了我小時候的所有願望與夢想。
從我在西點軍校的草坪上做過宣誓以來,世界已經經歷了許多次的轉變,而我那些兒時的願望與夢想,也早已不復存在。然而,我依然記得當年曾經最流行的一首軍歌,我記得它的副歌部分,它神氣地唱道:老兵不死,只是凋零。
就像這首歌中的老兵一樣,如今我將結束我的軍旅生涯,淡出舞臺。這是一個盡力依照上帝所指引的那樣,努力去完成職責的老兵。
再見!

 

本文節錄自:《聚焦英語演說:56篇偉大演講(新增二版)》,寂天文化事業有限公司出版,民國107年2月,頁92–97。

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(第四週研讀)

On Charity and Humor
薩克雷是維多利亞時代極具代表性的小說家,與狄更斯齊名,他們兩人都是現實主義小說家,被喻為「小說雙傑」,兩人的代表作分別為《浮華世界》(Vanity Fair)和《塊肉餘生錄》(David Copperfield),這兩部作品也被喻為19世紀英國文學的兩塊瑰寶。
薩克雷一生的創作很多,全集多達35卷。他的筆鋒犀利,語調幽默,在英國文學史上佔有重要的地位。他除了勤於筆耕,後來還到英國各地和美國去做演講,這篇演說就是他在紐約時,代表某慈善機構所做的演講。

 

Besides contributing to our stock of happiness, to our harmless laughter and amusement, to our scorn for falsehood and pretension, to our righteous hatred of hypocrisy, to our education in the perception of truth, our love of honesty, our knowledge of life, and shrewd guidance through the world, have not our humorous writers, our gay and kind weekday preachers, done much in support of that holy cause which has assembled you in this place, and which you are all abetting,—the cause of love and charity, the cause of the poor, the weak, and the unhappy; the sweet mission of love and tenderness, and peace and goodwill toward men?
That same theme which is urged upon you by the eloquence and example of good men to whom you are delighted listeners on Sabbath days is taught in his way and according to his power by the humorous writer, the commentator on everyday life and manners.
And as you are here assembled for a charitable purpose, giving your contributions at the door to benefit deserving people who need them, I like to hope and think that the men of our calling have done something in aid of the cause of charity, and have helped, with kind words and kind thoughts at least, to confer happiness and to do good.
If the humorous writers claim to be weekday preachers, have they conferred any benefit by their sermons? Are people happier, better, better disposed to their neighbors, more inclined to do works of kindness, to love, forbear, forgive, pity, after reading in Addison, in Steele, in Fielding, in Goldsmith, in Hood, in Dickens?

我們幽默的作家們,這些在非安息日也照樣天天傳教的好心作家們,他們除了為我們增添生活情趣,講一些無傷大雅的逗趣言論,摒斥虛情假意,義正嚴詞的痛斥虛偽造作,啟發世人認識真理,說明誠實的可貴,教導生活知識,引導人們的處世之道外,他們不是也對神聖事業的支持不遺餘力?這是你們聚集在這裡、努力促成的神聖事業—這是愛與慈善的事業,貧困者、弱勢者和不幸者的事業,這是一項出於愛護與溫情、致力於人類和平與友好的甜蜜使命。
牧師在安息日以流利口才和生動事跡向你們宣講的主題,幽默作家則以他特有的方式和魅力向你們講述,他們是日常生活規範的評論家。
你們抱著行善的目的聚集在這裡,在門口幫忙為那些需要幫助的人,我希望,而且我相信,做我們這一行的也能有益於公益事業,最起碼,能用好言善語來給予快樂、造福人群。
如果說幽默作家是天天傳教的傳教士,那麼他們的佈道是否有益於人心?在讀過艾迪生、史第爾、菲爾丁、哥德史密斯、胡德和狄更斯的作品之後,和以前比起來,是否變得更快樂些?為人是否更好些?和鄰居相處是否更和睦些?是否更願意做好事?更願意去關愛別人、克制自己、寬恕別人、同情別人?

I hope and believe so, and fancy that in writing they are also acting charitably, contributing with the means which Heaven supplies them to forward the end which brings you, too, together.
I have said myself somewhere, that humor is wit and love; I am sure, at any rate, that the best humor is that which contains most humanity, that which is flavored throughout with tenderness and kindness.
This love does not demand constant utterance or actual expression, as a good father, in conversation with his children or wife, is not perpetually embracing them or making protestations of his love. He shows his love by his conduct, by his fidelity, by his watchful desire to make the beloved person happy; it influences all his words and actions; suffuses his whole being; it sets the father cheerily to work through the long day, supports him through the tedious labor of the weary absence or journey, and sends him happy home again, yearning toward the wife and children.
And so with a loving humor: I think, it is a genial writer's habit of being; it is the kind, gentle spirit's way of looking out on the world—that sweet friendliness which fills his heart and his style.

但願如此,我也相信確實如此。我想,作家們在寫作時也是出於慈善的,上帝賜予他們寫作的本領來推動慈善,這也是我們大家齊聚一堂的原因。
我曾在某處說過,幽默就是風趣和愛。我確信,最佳的幽默蘊含著最多的人性,溫情和仁慈貫穿其中,使之生色。
這種愛不需要在口頭或行為上一直不斷地做表達,就好比一個好父親,他在和妻兒說話時,不會一直抱著對方或是聲明自己的愛。他是透過行為、忠誠和希望對方快樂的真摰願望,來表現他的愛。這份愛會影響他的語言和行為,讓他整個人都洋溢著愛。這份愛會讓父親整天的工作都充滿活力,會在他出門或出差的疲累旅程中支撐著他,讓他在思念妻兒的心情中歡歡喜喜地回到家。
出於愛心的幽默也是如此。我想,這正是一個真誠作家的習性,這是一個仁慈和善的人看待世界的方式—甜蜜的情誼會洋溢在他的心裡頭,並且呈現在他的風格之中。

 

本文節錄自:《聚焦英語演說:56篇偉大演講(新增二版)》,寂天文化事業有限公司出版,民國107年2月,頁124–129。

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國防部「奮鬥月刊」110年11月號佳文選讀選篇內容意旨分析表
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本文節錄自:《聚焦英語演說:56篇偉大演講(新增二版)》,寂天文化事業有限公司出版,民國107年2月,頁62–67。
柏林圍牆的建立,是第二次世界大戰後美蘇兩大陣營冷戰的重要象徵。1963年,甘迺迪總統訪問歐洲,6月26日這一天是他此行的高潮,他在柏林圍牆前發表了這場著名的演講。
1989年11月9日,屹立了28年柏林圍牆終於倒塌。
在英國《每日電訊報》2008年評選出20–21世紀最重要的25場政治演說中,這一篇被排名在第二位。
本文節錄自:《聚焦英語演說:56篇偉大演講(新增二版)》,寂天文化事業有限公司出版,民國107年2月,頁76–83。
甘地一生為印度的獨立而奮鬥,帶領國家脫離英國的殖民統治。聖雄(Mahatma),是印度詩人泰戈爾(Rabindranath Tagore, 1861–1941)給予他的稱號,意思是「偉大的靈魂」。
甘地於1888年留學英國倫敦大學,修習法律。1893年,甘地被一家印度公司派至南非,後來參與了南非的公民權利運動,並曾於1913年被捕。在南非的這段期間,甘地成了社會政治活動家,其不服從的非暴力抵抗也逐漸成形。
本文節錄自: 《聚焦英語演說:56篇偉大演講(新增二版)》,寂天文化事業有限公司出版,民國107年2月,頁92–97。
1950年6月25日,北韓領導人金日成進攻南韓,6月27日杜魯門總統下令美軍參戰,聯合國安理會隨後也組織軍隊參戰,由麥克阿瑟擔任總司令。後來杜魯門總統指示他只能打一場有限的戰爭,麥克阿瑟公開反對。1951年4月11日,杜魯門以「未能全力支持美國和聯合國的政策」為由,將之撤職。
麥克阿瑟回到美國後,在華盛頓受到了萬人空巷的英雄式歡迎。1951年4月19日,麥克阿瑟在國會大廈發表了這篇著名的《老兵不死》的告別演說。其中最膾炙人口的一句話就是:
Old soldiers never die; they just fade away.
老兵不死,只是凋零。
本文節錄自:《聚焦英語演說:56篇偉大演講(新增二版)》,寂天文化事業有限公司出版,民國107年2月,頁124–129。
薩克雷是維多利亞時代極具代表性的小說家,與狄更斯齊名,他們兩人都是現實主義小說家,被喻為「小說雙傑」,兩人的代表作分別為《浮華世界》(Vanity Fair)和《塊肉餘生錄》(David Copperfield),這兩部作品也被喻為19世紀英國文學的兩塊瑰寶。
薩克雷一生的創作很多,全集多達35卷。他的筆鋒犀利,語調幽默,在英國文學史上佔有重要的地位。他除了勤於筆耕,後來還到英國各地和美國去做演講,這篇演說就是他在紐約時,代表某慈善機構所做的演講。
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